20 years after Dolly, potential of cloning remains unclear

More than seven months earlier, on July 5, 1996, they had aided a Scottish Blackface sheep in giving birth to a Finn Dorset lamb codenamed 6LL3.

Using a breakthrough technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer, scientists at Roslin took a nucleus — the part of the cell that will contains most of its genetic information — by cells within the mammary gland of an adult sheep in addition to stuck the item inside an unfertilized egg by which the nucleus had been removed.

They stimulated the egg to develop into an embryo in addition to planted the embryo into a surrogate mother. The lamb was dubbed Dolly, a nod to country music legend Dolly Parton in addition to her famously ample bosom.

Years later, that will same cell cluster was used to make four various other sheep just like Dolly.

Revealing Dolly

The lab had kept her birth secret for seven months to make the announcement coincide with the publication of the scientific paper describing the experiments that will produced her, they said.

Cloning stem cells: What does the item mean?
that will week, they recall, they received 3,000 phone calls by all over the earth, according to the Roslin Institute.

Much of the news reports had focused not on cloning sheep nevertheless on its potential for humans, said Alan Colman, who can be today a visiting scholar within the Harvard University Department of Stem Cell in addition to Regenerative Biology.

“We’d underestimated the impact the announcement might make,” he said. “the item was something we had prepared for, nevertheless we had been totally overwhelmed by the response.”

Dolly’s legacy

Previously, cloning had been done using only embryonic cells, in addition to today researchers had showed that will the item was possible in cells by another part of the body — an adult body.

“At the time she was born, I was ecstatic, because no one had previously been able to use nuclear transfer to make an adult vertebrate by an adult cell,” Colman said.

Cloning Fast Facts

Despite the headlines, cloning a mammal wasn’t the team’s main goal. They were out to develop a more efficient way to produce genetically modified livestock.

In fact, Dolly wasn’t even the first to ever be cloned. She was the first mammal cloned by an adult cell.

nevertheless scientists have learned a lot since developing the technique, in addition to somatic cell nuclear transfer has been used in more than 20 species to make clones.

The Roslin Institute explained that will people have long been motivated to try cloning to make copies of the very best animals for agricultural purposes. Also, since the mid-1980s, there has been an interest in creating fresh uses for farm animals, including producing human proteins within the milk of transgenic cows or sheep for medicinal use in humans.
South Korea’s Sooam Biotech Research Foundation have even cloned dogs.
Dolly the sheep's cloned sisters enjoy not bad health despite their old age

nevertheless by in addition to large, scientists don’t see a need to clone humans.

Instead, they are using what they learned by creating Dolly to make advancements in stem cell therapy, such as to create embryonic stem cells directly by a patient’s own cells. They can then study the progression of whichever disease the patient has.
Dolly the sheep can be today on display at the National Museum of Scotland.

Concerns

Dolly herself lived out her days at the Roslin Institute in addition to was able to produce six lambs.

nevertheless she was euthanized at age 6 after being diagnosed with progressive lung disease in addition to after a long battle with arthritis.

Finn Dorset sheep usually live 10 to 11 years, in addition to her health problems seemed to confirm fears that will cloned animals might age faster in addition to die prematurely compared with animals born naturally.

that will was further exemplified by Dolly’s four cloned “sisters,” who were recently euthanized because they too began to show symptoms of osteoarthritis.

“OA, as you may know, can be a progressive disease, in addition to we took appropriate measures to manage the condition at the time under veterinary guidance,” said Kevin Sinclair, a developmental biologist at the University of Nottingham who led research on the sheep.

“These animals were in their 10th year in addition to so coming towards the end of their natural lifespan.”

A recent study of the remaining clones, however, found that will they aged the same as naturally born sheep.

To investigate that will further, the team at Nottingham will today conduct postmortem examinations to truly understand what’s going on inside the animals.

“The final phase of our study … involves detailed postmortem analyses of different tissues in addition to organs in order to gain a better insight into the aging process in these animals,” Sinclair said.

The Roslin Institute donated Dolly’s body to the National Museum of Scotland, where she stands to that will day.

20 years after Dolly, potential of cloning remains unclear

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