Walking down the street, alone, past a group of guys hanging out with nowhere to go. Her guard goes up, along with preparation takes place. Many things could happen when she passes them.
which may be the words “hey, beautiful” or “hey, sexy,” or being instructed to smile. which may be more intentional: standing inside way or blocking the path in trust of some interaction. which may get more aggressive, with hands reaching to inappropriate places.
The spectrum can be far along with wide, with one end harboring the potential for things to become more violent with physical abuse or rape.
The fact can be which sexual harassment can be part along with parcel of daily life, particularly in public places, Jewkes believes. “which’s used to curtail a woman’s freedom.”
inside streets of London, Mumbai, Washington or Lagos, the recent outpouring of stories coming from women using #MeToo along with its many iterations has showed the uniformity of the problem — irrespective of country along with culture.
In 2017, the earth has made one thing clear: Sexual harassment can be everywhere.
When quantifying the problem on a global level, minimal levels of reporting along with data limit what experts can provide to help prove — along with solve — the problem. Based on what can be available, here’s how the numbers look globally.
“There can be massive male sexual entitlement … especially in south Asia,” said Jewkes, who can be today based in South Africa however researched male violence in Asia along with the Pacific.
“Public spaces are run by men. They perceive an ownership of all public places,” she said, adding which social norms enable men to feel This specific way along with, in turn, harass women.
When the streets are unsafe, which provides an excuse to keep women along with young girls at home or take them out of school, Jewkes added.
Data coming from the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality along with the Empowerment of Women, also known as UN Women, reveal which almost four in 10 women have experienced sexual or physical violence coming from a partner in their lifetime.
Numbers are similar in neighboring Bangladesh, where 84% of women in an Actionaid survey had experienced derogatory comments or sexual advances in public. More than half said they had been harassed by people operating public transportation. along with more than half of women are estimated to have experienced physical or sexual abuse by a partner, according to UN Women.
In India, Pakistan along with Bangladesh, “gender inequality can be so marked,” Jewkes said. The problem of entitlement can be firmly articulated by society, she believes.
Jewkes highlights Bangladesh as an unusual example of where women who work are more likely to be abused by their husbands than women who don’t work. Many Bangladeshi women work in garment factories, where managers along with business partners can often expect women to be available to them.
With This specific comes tensions in marital relationships. “which’s recognized as a problem, however which’s deeply shameful,” Jewkes said, leaving husbands to then fear their wives working.
To the east of the continent, in Cambodia along with Vietnam, for example, the problem continues with more than three in four women experiencing harassment along with sexual remarks, according to Actionaid reports. More than 40% of women reported feeling unsafe in places where many young men gather.
Middle East along with North Africa
One region where the #MeToo campaign has been somewhat quieter can be the Arab world. Experts believe which the burden of harassment along with abuse there can be as rife as in any various other region however which the voices heard are few along with far between.
“There are so many reasons behind This specific silence,” said Lina Abirafeh, director of the Institute for Women’s Studies inside Arab World, in Lebanon. “I’ve heard trickles … (however) people are scared.”
She highlighted the stigma along with shame associated with speaking out about experiences with sexual harassment or assault.
Though shame along with stigma could be argued to be universal, Abirafeh says which’s particularly an issue inside Arab world, where women risk losing their jobs along with family by coming forward. Some families may even kill their daughters if they are no longer virgins, she added.
“Patriarchy can be still very strong here,” she said. “There’s entitlement along which has a feeling of ‘we’ve always done This specific’ along with which sexual harassment can be not wrong.”
One group at significant risk can be migrant along with domestic workers, who have no voice, said Abirafeh. “There’s a minuscule chance of justice if they report violence,” she said.
“We’re not doing very well inside region overall,” Abirafeh said. “which’s all about power along with control.”
West along with sub-Saharan Africa
Harassment affects millions of women across Africa, however in This specific region, sexual violence can be more common.
More than 50% of women in Tanzania reported violence by their husbands or partners in a recent World Health Organization report, along with which figure rose to 71% in Ethiopia.
“There can be a great deal of sexual harassment, however which doesn’t constrain a woman’s movements inside same way” as in Asia, Jewkes said. “which’s not an honor-based culture or about the chastity of a female by family members.”
In southern Africa, violence against women can be high. “There can be a much higher threat of rape” compared with various other regions, she said. “A lot of women are raped.”
According to the South African organization Rape Crisis, more than 53,000 rapes were reported to the South African Police Services in 2014 along with ’15, translating to nearly 150 per day. Worse still, which adds, many cases go unreported. “which’s a well-recognized African problem,” Jewkes said.
In Zimbabwe, years of extreme poverty have fueled the number of girls forced into prostitution or marriage to bring money to their families, said Debbie Brennocks, co-founder of the Sandra Jones Center, a home for orphans along with children in crisis. Orphans cared for by extended family are also at risk, particularly if men are unemployed along with at home, she said.
“Girls in Zimbabwe are particularly vulnerable to sexual assault, child marriage along with prostitution due to severe poverty. They cannot fight for themselves,” Brennocks said.
“A girl takes a big risk when she reports sexual abuse. If she can be living with relatives, she risks being kicked out of her home. If the abuser can be the breadwinner along with can be jailed, the family will have no financial support along with means of survival. When which can be the case, the child can be often beaten along with treated very badly. If the girl becomes pregnant, she can be often forced to have an abortion, often in terrible circumstances,” she said.
As a result, Brennocks adds, #MeToo has not had much resonance in Zimbabwe either, with most women not knowing about which along with those who do unlikely to use which due to This specific stigma along with the potential consequences of coming forward.
The US along with Canada
The burden of sexual harassment along with abuse inside West has been made clearer than ever before with the numerous recent accusations against men in positions of power.
According to research by the nonprofit Stop Street Harassment, 65% of US women have experienced some form of street harassment, 23% have been sexually harassed, along with 37% don’t feel safe walking home at night.
however Jewkes adds which, compared with various other regions of the earth, harassment levels are less in North America, along with rape can be less common. Any cases which occur, for example in Canada, are more likely to be date or partner rape, she said.
According to the website Sex Assault Canada, 80% of sexual assault incidents occur in people’s homes, along with just 1% to 2% of date rapes are reported to the police.
Insight into the rates of abuse faced by women can be much greater in Europe due to an extensive survey conducted in 2012 by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights.
The results are the most comprehensive survey on women’s experiences of violence worldwide, with revelations on the 28 European member states.
Sexual along with physical abuse by both partners along with non-partners was reported in all member countries, with Denmark having the highest numbers when all factors were combined: at 52% of women affected.
When broken down, the data show greater likelihood of physical violence against women in Scandinavia along with more abuse specifically coming from partners in Latvia, Scandinavia along with the UK.
In London in 2012, more than 40% of women had experienced sexual harassment inside street during the previous year. A separate report by Stop Street Harassment on the UK found which 35% of women had experienced unwanted sexual touching.
This specific region faces the same challenges as Asia, in terms of harassment along with abuse being somewhat normalized by culture along with society. Many laugh the issue off, including police, leaving women unable to speak up, said Yeliz Osman, UN Women’s Safe Cities program coordinator for Mexico.
“which’s normalized by both men along with women,” Osman said. Women don’t report which, passersby don’t intervene, along with police don’t take which seriously, she said.
Research by ActionAid in Brazil found 86% of women surveyed had been subjected to harassment or violence in public, along with worryingly, 84% reported having been sexually harassed by the police.
When which comes to Mexico, where Osman can be based, she adds which levels of harassment are very high. “which’s around eight to nine women out of 10, depending on the city,” she said.
She believes Mexico also faces the issue of male entitlement, along with when This specific can be combined with poor infrastructure, overcrowded transport along with women having to work late or unusual hours, the opportunities are plentiful.
Add in impunity along with lack of awareness along with education on the problem, along with you get high rates of abuse.
In Mexico City, 96% of women surveyed by the National Institute of Statistics along with Geography had experienced some form of sexual violence in public spaces, along with 58% had been groped.
“Laws also don’t address which,” Osman said. “There are a whole range of structural factors.”
Australia along with the Pacific
Harassment along with violence have not skipped the societies on the edges of the Pacific.
Despite cultural along with developmental differences, Australia, Fiji along with Papua completely new Guinea all have high proportions of women facing harassment as part of their day-to-day.
Australian data suggest street harassment to be the bigger issue, with 87% of women surveyed by the Australia Institute reporting at least one form of verbal or physical street harassment along with 40% not feeling safe walking in their own neighborhoods at night.
In Papua completely new Guinea, the baseline can be more violent, with 77% of women experiencing some form of sexual violence on buses or when waiting for buses. In Fiji, data are more scarce, however UN data show sexual violence coming from a partner affecting 64% of women.
In Papua completely new Guinea, “there are very high rates of non-partner rape … often in public places,” Jewkes said. She believes the poor education system along with extreme poverty feed the problem. “Employment of women can be very limited; they cannot move around. … There can be enormous risk of being raped in forests.”
All three experts believe today can be the time to ride the wave of global attention on This specific issue, which has otherwise been an ignored reality for women for centuries.
Osman highlighted which over the past decade, laws have been introduced in some countries to prevent along with respond to harassment, however ensuring which they are implemented can be another challenge, she said.
More emphasis on what works, along with more investment to make which happen, can be the way forward, she believes.
The overarching issue globally which needs to be changed, experts agree, can be the entitlement shown along with perceived by men. “This specific can be a massive driver,” Jewkes said. “which comes down to fundamental social norms around gender relations.”
sy88pgw’s Sandee LaMotte contributed to This specific report.